Generally, it refers to the new materials with excellent properties and special functions, or the materials whose properties are obviously improved and produce new functions after the improvement of traditional materials. Advanced metal material is an important part of new materials, which has good high temperature resistance, corrosion resistance or some specific environmental adaptability, and can be used in key fields of national economy, such as aerospace, gas turbine, nuclear engineering, petrochemical industry and so on. it is also an important support for the modernization of national defense.
Advanced metal materials include superalloys, high-performance alloys, high-quality special steel, high-purity rare metal materials and high-end rare earth functional materials.
1. Characteristics of advanced metal materials industry.
High temperature and high performance alloys and special stainless steel are used in aerospace, nuclear engineering, gas turbine, steam turbine, petrochemical and other important fields of national economy. Industry is related to the fluctuation of macroeconomic relationship, and is less affected by a single industry. Among them, special stainless steel products are mainly used in petrochemical industry. The large fluctuation of international oil and gas price will affect the oil and gas exploitation and the demand of petroleum products, and the related business may show a certain periodicity due to the large fluctuation of oil and gas price.
There is no obvious regionality in the superalloy industry, while the corrosion-resistant alloy and special stainless steel industry has a certain regionality, which is mainly concentrated in East China, mainly because the Yangtze River Delta is the core area for the processing and circulation of corrosion-resistant alloys and stainless steel in China. A number of new high-end material manufacturers have been gathered.
2. Industry management model.
Special alloy products such as high temperature and high performance alloy and high quality special stainless steel mainly adopt the mode of product cost plus in order to obtain reasonable profit. In the purchasing mode, the mode of "order by production + safety inventory" is basically adopted, and the raw materials needed are purchased directly from the market. In the production mode, we basically adopt "fixed production by sales" and carry out customized production according to customer orders. In the way of sales, it is mainly carried out in the way of direct sales, and there is also a way to sell through traders.
3. The application of superalloy recycling.
A large number of return materials will be produced in the processing process of superalloy. Take the cutting-edge application of superalloy aero-engine as an example, due to the need to fully consider the requirements of strength, aerodynamics, weight loss and so on, the parts have many processing links, complex shape and high precision requirements. As a result, the effective utilization rate of materials is very low. In general, more than 90% of materials will become return materials. The application of superalloy recycling refers to the use of returned materials produced in the processing process in the manufacturing process of superalloys, through strict grade classification management, sorting and cleaning, and then the preparation mode of superalloy materials is formed by vacuum purification, remelting, forging and casting and other finishing processes.
Internationally, the United States has carried out the recycling of superalloy recycled materials since the 1970s. At present, it has formed a closed-loop mode of the whole industry chain with mature technology, perfect system and strict classification, recycling and recycling of recycled materials. The proportion of recycled materials used in the production of superalloys reached 70% and 90%. After many times of vacuum purification and refining, the purity level and index stability of the recycled materials are better than those of the new materials for mining and metallurgy, so that the quality and stability of the recycled materials are greatly improved, and the cost can be reduced by more than 30%. For example, the American Allegheny Technologies Incorporated ("ATI") company said that it is more willing to use recycled materials to produce better quality products and simpler production. Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Rolls-Royce, General Electric and other end-users have established corresponding systems to put forward clear requirements for suppliers' recycling standards and quantities of returned materials.
In the domestic aspect, the superalloy industry in China has experienced the process from imitation to independent innovation, and a complete superalloy development system has been initially established, but compared with the leading level in the world, there is still a certain gap in product impurity element control, uniformity, stability, cost control and so on. Taking the typical grade of wrought superalloy GH4169 as an example, the cost of foreign products of the same brand is lower than that of domestic products, and the inclusion control of the material is better, the stability is stronger, and the grain size difference is smaller. Part of the reason for the above differences is that foreign countries have established a complete recycling system and supporting grading management system, but our country is still lack of technology and standards in this respect, which limits the development of China's superalloy manufacturing industry to a certain extent. At the same time, there is a lack of unified management of the returned materials, most of the returned materials can only be degraded and used, some of the returned materials are handled at export, and there are hidden dangers of leakage, which may involve the security of key strategic information such as relevant equipment information and material parameters. In summary, doing a good job in the recycling application of superalloy recycled materials is of great significance to improve the quality and stability of superalloys in China, reduce costs and ensure the safety of strategic resources.